|January 11, 2021||President of Azerbaijan Ilham Aliyev and Prime Minister of Armenia Nikol Pashinyan meet with Russia’s President Vladimir Putin and agree to reopen transportation links. At the same time, Aliyev refuses to return an estimate 100 Armenian military personnel and civilians captured during fighting.|
|November 10, 2020||After Azerbaijani forces capture southern districts of Karabakh, including Hadrut and Shushi, Armenia agrees to end the fighting and withdraw from Agdam, Kelbajar and Lachin. Russian peacekeeping forces enter Karabakh.|
|September 27, 2020||Azerbaijan initiates a full-scale offensive along the entire line of contact between Armenian and Azerbaijani forces in Karabakh. After days of fighting, Turkish-backed Azerbaijani forces make advances in Karabakh’s northeast and south.|
|July-August, 2020||Turkey pledges full support to Azerbaijan’s efforts to restore its territorial integrity. Joint military exercises take place in Azerbaijan for which Turkey transports F-16 fighter jets and other military equipment to Azerbaijan.|
|July 12-16, 2020||Fighting on the Armenian-Azerbaijani border leaves 18 dead on both sides, including senior Azerbaijani officers. The fighting triggers pro-war protests in Azerbaijan.|
|February 15, 2020
||Aliyev and Pashinyan meet in Munich and after the meeting hold a joint conference, which turns into a debate.|
|August 5, 2019||During a rally in Stepanakert, Pashinyan declares, “Artsakh is Armenia. Period.”|
||After mass protests in Armenia, Sargsyan resigns, Nikol Pashinyan is elected as Armenia’s leader|
|February-October 2017||Sporadic clashes continue in Karabakh, until Sargsyan and Aliyev meet in Geneva and agree to reduce tensions|
|April 2-5, 2016||Azerbaijan initiates the largest offensive since the conclusion of active fighting in 1994. Azerbaijan forces capture several posts in the north and in the south of Karabakh, after an Armenian counterattack in the north, several positions are restored. In 4 days of fighting, heavy artillery and drones are involved, with some 200 people killed on both sides.|
|March 31-April 1, 2016||US Secretary of State John Kerry holds separate meetings with Armenian and Azerbaijani presidents in Washington. Hours later Azerbaijan begins an offensive in Karabakh.|
|2012-2016||Low-intensity fighting takes place in Karabakh and on Armenian-Azerbaijani border, with Azerbaijani forces conducting hit-and-run attacks, and Armenian forces retaliating.|
||During talks in Kazan, Russia Aliyev walks away from an agreement with Sargsyan on basic principles of resolution.|
|November 2, 2008||The Presidents of Armenia and Azerbaijan, Serzh Sargsyan and Ilham Aliyev, meet in Moscow and pledge to find a political solution to the Karabakh conflict, but no progress is made in talks.|
|November 29, 2007||After a meeting in Madrid the OSCE Minsk Group Co-chairs announce that a set of Basic Principles for the peaceful settlement of the conflict is proposed. The principles link Armenian withdrawals from the east and south of Karabakh to security guarantees and determination of Karabakh’s status via referendum.|
|February 19, 2004||During NATO training in Budapest, Azerbaijani officer Ramil Safarov murders Armenian officer Gurgen Margaryan with an axe in his sleep, triggering international condemnation and deepening of mistrust between Armenian and Azerbaijani societies.|
|August-December, 2003||Azerbaijani leader Heydar Aliyev dies, succeeded by his son Ilham Aliyev.|
|April 2001||Armenia’s Robert Kocharyan and Azerbaijan’s Heydar Aliyev come close to an agreement that would make NKAO and Lachin corridor part of Armenia, with other territories transferred to Azerbaijan; Aliyev backs away from the agreement.|
|February 3, 1998||Armenia’s first president Levon Ter-Petrossian resigns after his plan for the settlement of the Karabakh conflict is rejected. Former Karabakh leader Robert Kocharyan is elected president of Armenia.|
|January 1, 1997||The OSCE Minsk Groups establishes the trilateral co-chairmanship format of the United States, France, and Russia, still in effect until today.|
|December 2, 1996||During the OSCE summit in Lisbon, Azerbaijan stresses the importance of territorial integrity; Armenia vetoes the final document.|
|March 23, 1995||OSCE established the co-chairmanship of the Conference on Nagorno Karabakh under the auspices of the OSCE Minsk Group.|
|May 12, 1994||Armenia, Azerbaijan and Nagorno Karabakh agree on a cease-fire brokered by Russia, ending three years of fighting.|
|April-May, 1994||Armenian forces advance in Agdam and Mardakert districts.|
|December 1993-February 1994||Azerbaijani forces on the offensive in Karabakh, but their efforts to make advances are repulsed by Armenian forces.|
|November 12, 1993||UN Security Council Resolution 884 condemns the occupation of the Zangelan district and the city of Horadiz, attacks on civilians and bombardments of the territory of the Azerbaijani Republic; calls upon the Government of Armenia to use its influence to achieve compliance by the Armenians of the Nagorny Karabakh region of the Azerbaijani Republic.|
|October 14, 1993||UN Security Council Resolution 874 expresses concern that a continuation of the conflict in and around the Nagorny Karabakh region of the Azerbaijani Republic, and of the tensions between the Republic of Armenia and the Azerbaijani Republic, would endanger peace and security in the region and supports the monitoring mission developed by the CSCE.|
|August 23-31, 1993||Armenian forces establish control over Jebrayil, Kubatli districts and part of Fizuli, to the south of NKAO’s administrative border.|
|July 29, 1993||UN Security Council Resolution 853 expresses concern over the seizure of the district of Agdam in the Azerbaijani Republic (not specified by whom), Urges the Government of the Republic of Armenia to continue to exert its influence to achieve compliance by the Armenians of the Nagorny-Karabakh region to comply with the resolutions.|
|April 30, 1993||UN Security Council Resolution 822 expresses serious concern at the deterioration of the relations between the Republic of Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, in particular, the latest invasion of the Kelbajar district of the Republic of Azerbaijan by local Armenian forces.|
|November 1992-February, 1993||Armenian forces retake the initiative in the war, expanding the Lachin corridor, creating a security buffer around Kapan and recapturing much of the Mardakert district|
|June-October, 1992||Azerbaijani forces on the offensive against Karabakh, with almost half of the Armenian territory, including Shaumyan and Mardakert districts, captured, and local population displaced.|
|May 18, 1992
||Armenian forces take control of Lachin, establishing a corridor between Armenia and Karabakh.|
|May 9, 1992||Armenians take Shushi, effectively ending the siege and bombardment of Stepanakert from the GRAD launchers located in Shushi.|
|April 10, 1992||Azerbaijani forces enter the village of Maragha, murdering some forty civilians.|
|May 18, 1992||Armenian forces take control of Lachin, establishing a corridor between Armenia and Karabakh.|
|May 9, 1992||Armenians take Shushi, lifting the siege of Stepanakert.|
|April 10, 1992||Azerbaijani forces enter the village of Maragha, in NKAO’s northeast, murdering some forty civilians.|
|February 26, 1992||Armenian self-defense forces capture the Khojaly settlement, where Karabakh’s only airport is located; hundreds of civilians die as they flee from Khojaly towards Agdam|
|September 25, 1991||The siege of Stepanakert begins with shelling launched from Shushi and nearby villages. Armenian self-defense forces are surrounded in NKAO, resupplied from Armenia by helicopters.|
|September 21, 1991||Armenia declares independence after the positive results of the nationwide referendum.|
|September 2, 1991||Nagorno Karabakh declares itself a republic, citing Soviet law on secession and international principle of self-determination|
|August 30, 1991||Azerbaijan declares itself independent of the Soviet Union and a successor state of the Azerbaijani Democratic Republic (1918-20)|
|January 1990-August, 1991||Supported by Soviet internal troops, Azerbaijani security forces conduct operations intended to expel the Armenian population from the vicinity and inside NKAO. Armenian self-defense is organized.|
|January 13-19, 1990||Pogroms of the Armenian population in Baku lead to dozens killed, and remaining Armenians leaving Azerbaijan.|
|December 1, 1989||Legislatures of Soviet Armenia and Nagorno Karabakh Autonomous Oblast make declarations of unification.|
|Fall 1988||Massive exodus of the Armenian population from Armenia and Azerbaijani population from Armenia; dozens killed in ethnic-motivated clashes.|
|July 18, 1988||The Supreme Council of the USSR rejects Armenian demands of unification.|
|June 17, 1988
||Soviet Azerbaijan expresses opposition to calls of transferring Nagorno Karabakh Autonomous Oblast to Soviet Armenia.|
|June 15, 1988||Soviet Armenian legislature votes in favor of unifying with Nagorno Karabakh Autonomous Oblast.|
|June 12, 1988||Nagorno Karabakh Autonomous Oblast regional legislature votes in favor of unification with Soviet Armenia.|
|March 25, 1988||Soviet leader Gorbachev rejects Armenian calls of unification.|
|February 27-29, 1988||Pogroms in the Azerbaijani city of Sumgait lead to the deaths of dozens of Armenians at the hands of Azerbaijani mob and the exodus of the large Armenian community of Azerbaijan.|
|February 22, 1988||Azerbaijanis march from the town of Aghdam towards Karabakh, where they meet an Armenian counter-protest, first deadly clashes ensue in the town of Askeran.|
|February 20, 1988||After public protests and grassroots lobbying, NKAO legislature adopts an appeal to Armenia, Azerbaijan and Moscow to consider reassigning the oblast to Soviet Armenia.|
|July 7, 1923||Soviet Azerbaijan establishes borders of the Nagorno Karabakh Autonomous Oblast (region), making it an enclave surrounded by Azerbaijani territory. Throughout the Soviet period Armenians raised the issue of reassigning Karabakh to Armenia, but Moscow rebuffed these efforts citing opposition from Azerbaijan.|
|July 5, 1921||After first Azerbaijan and then Armenia were both occupied by the Red Army, the dispute over Karabakh persisted. The Caucasus Bureau of the Russian Bolsheviks decided to establish a Karabakh autonomy inside Soviet Azerbaijan.|
|May 28, 1918||Republics of Armenia and Azerbaijan became independent following the Russian Revolution, and almost immediately went to war over several disputed territories, including Karabakh. By the fall of 1918, Turkish forces occupied much of the Caucasus, including Karabakh’s capital of Shusha. Turkish-Azerbaijani forces tried to control Karabakh but met Armenian resistance.|
January 11, 2021
November 10, 2020
September 27, 2020
July 12-16, 2020
February 15, 2020
August 5, 2019
During a rally in Stepanakert, Pashinyan declares, “Artsakh is Armenia. Period.”
After mass protests in Armenia, Sargsyan resigns, Nikol Pashinyan is elected as Armenia’s leader.
Sporadic clashes continue in Karabakh, until Sargsyan and Aliyev meet in Geneva and agree to reduce tensions.
April 2-5, 2016
March 31-April 1, 2016
November 2, 2008
November 29, 2007
February 19, 2004
Azerbaijani leader Heydar Aliyev dies, succeeded by his son Ilham Aliyev.
February 3, 1998
January 1, 1997
December 2, 1996
March 23, 1995
May 12, 1994
Armenian forces advance in Agdam and Mardakert districts.
December 1993-February 1994
November 12, 1993
October 14, 1993
August 23-31, 1993
July 29, 1993
April 30, 1993
November 1992-February, 1993
Armenian forces retake the initiative in the war, expanding the Lachin corridor, creating a security buffer around Kapan and recapturing much of the Mardakert district.
May 18, 1992
Armenian forces take control of Lachin, establishing a corridor between Armenia and Karabakh.
May 9, 1992
Armenians take Shushi, lifting the siege of Stepanakert.
April 10, 1992
February 26, 1992
Armenian self-defense forces capture the Khojaly settlement, where Karabakh’s only airport is located; hundreds of civilians die as they flee from Khojaly towards Agdam.
September 25, 1991
September 21, 1991
Armenia declares independence after the positive results of the nationwide referendum.
September 2, 1991
Nagorno Karabakh declares itself a republic, citing Soviet law on secession and international principle of self-determination.
August 30, 1991
Azerbaijan declares itself independent of the Soviet Union and a successor state of the Azerbaijani Democratic Republic (1918-20).
January 1990-August, 1991
January 13-19, 1990
December 1, 1989
July 18, 1988
The Supreme Council of the USSR rejects Armenian demands of unification.
July 12, 1988
June 17, 1988
June 15, 1988
Soviet Armenian legislature votes in favor of unifying with Nagorno Karabakh Autonomous Oblast.
March 25, 1988
Soviet leader Gorbachev rejects Armenian calls of unification.